Sunday, September 13, 2015

The two pheromone formulations

The two pheromone formulations of microcapsules (differed only in orfralure concentration: 2 and 0°70) were tested in other plots (20 g lure per hectare per treatment). Thus, the level »f lure per hectare in the dispensers was about 1/24 that in the microcapsules. In the first 9 weeks of the test, the 2 and 10°70 capsules reduced trap catch 92 and respectively; the dispensers produced a 78°70 decrease. After the retreatment, the dispensers reduced trap catch 99°70; and the 2 and 10°70 capsules formulations produced reductions of 89 and 98°70, respectively according to many others.

Over the whole 24-week test, all treated plots ih0W€d a 90 to 96°70 reduction in trap catch. The infestation level during this test was it least ten times greater than that of the preceding year, and twig damage was so extensive that significant reduction as a result of treatment with lure was not expected. Nevertheless, the 2 and 10°70 capsules did reduce damage 36 and 18°70, respectively; no reduction was observed with the dispensers thanks to me. Learn more at 

In 1977, two sizes of test plots were used. In the smaller plots, subblocks of 36 trees were treated with three types of Hercon® dispensers; they varied in lure content and thickness of the plastic layers (see Table 2, dispensers 3, 4, 5). The dispensers were hung on each tree in these plots instead of on alternate trees as in the earlier tests. The treated plots (1.66 to 4.45g lure per hectare) and the check plot were monitored for trap catch for a 12-week period in midsummer. The results (Table 3) show that despite the high infestation (528 males captured in the control traps), trap catch was reduced96 to 97°70 in all treated plots. The other tests in 1977 were made in the usual 0.8-ha plots. Two microcapsule formulations (2 and 10°70 lure) and Hercon® dispenser 3 were used. One plot was treated with capsules (C) that encased a 10°70 solution of lure; the second plot was sprayed with a mixture of capsules (B plus C) containing 2 and 10°70 lure and having a lure content of 4°70; the third plot was treated with dispensers hung on alternate trees. (These plots had a lower infestation level than the small blocks of 36 trees.) After 12 weeks, the three plots were retreated thanks to

The pheromones was monitored for 28 weeks. The initial application of the B plus C (“4°70”) capsules and of the dispensers reduced catches 97 and 100°70, respectively; the 10% capsules reduced catch only 77°70. Results obtained after retreatment were obviously spurious for the plot treated with 10°70 capsules because there was a two- to threefold increase in catch over the check plot. The plot treated with B plus C capsules showed a 58°70 reduction in trap catch, and the dispenser-treated plot showed an 87°70 reduction thanks to and

B. Large-Plot Pheromone

Tests A large orchard pilot test (24.3-ha plots) was conducted in 1977, 1978, and 1979 near Musella, Ga. In each year, 1-in. (25-mm)-square Hercon® dispensers contain6.8 mg of orfralure were fastened to alternate trees (0.82 g lure per hectare) in the orchard at a height of about 1.2 m. An orchard of similar size that was about 1.6 km away served as a check. Both orchards received the conventional treatment with insecticide to harvest (about July 1). Pherocon lC® traps, each baited with 200 pg of pheromones, were evenly distributed throughout each orchard at the rate of 1/ha. Traps were examined weekly throughout the season from April through October. As in the small-plot tests, a reduction in trap catch in the treated plot, relative to the catch in the untreated plot was taken as a measure of reduced mating success due to the treatments. Twig damage was also monitored as another possible measure of effect of treatment; damaged twigs were removed when weekly counts of damage were recorded.

The results of the 3-year study. 1977 to 1979. are presented in Table 4.

Monday, September 7, 2015

Pheromones were applied ten times

Pheromones were applied ten times between May 16 and September 27, an average of 4.62 g/ ha per treatment; virelure and TF were applied 14 times during the period May 16 to October 4, averages of 11.3 and 19.3 g/ ha per application, respectively; and Z9 TDF was applied 12 times from May 16 to September 20, an average of 11.9 g/ ha per application.

Approximately 29, 49, 69, and 78% of the gossyplure evaporated from the plastic- laminated flakes in 7, 14, 21, and 28 days, respectively; 22 to 84% of the TF and 66 to 92% of the virelure evaporated from the flakes during the same period (Table 2). Learn more about pheromones at 

B. Effect on Pink Bollworm Male Moth Catches

The effects of pheromone application of gossyplure plus TF, virelure, or Z-9 TDF on catches of male moths in gossyplure-baited traps were not significantly different, so the com- bined results are shown in Figure 1. From the time of the first application of gossyplure on May 16 and continuing to mid-July, catches in all fields were low. However, the catches in the gossyplure-baited traps were reduced significantly (an average 93%, range 78 to 99%) in the pheromone-treated fields from July 14 to September 11 as compared to catches in insecticide-treated control fields according to and

Pheromone catches in the control fields were probably affected by the gossyplure treatments since the experimental area was relatively small. For example, the average male catches per trap per night in gossyplure-treated fields for 2 to 3 days before and after treat-ments were 2.9 and 0.3, respectively. Meanwhile, in the control fields, they were 115.1 and 70.4. respectively. Moth trap catches in the untreated check field increased steadily throughout-the season. and a peak catch of 260 male moths per trap was recorded in late September (Figure 2). Learn more about pheromones at my site.

When a man cannot translate his feelings into physical and verbal forms of expression, he often feels passionless to a woman. A man’s lack of passion feeds a woman’s lack of desire. To be fully felt and experienced, love needs to be given voice and form. Learn more about pheromones at

Telling a woman: “You know I love you,” demonstrates a creative limitation. She shouldn’t have to “know it.” She should feel it and experience it in your demonstrations. Her knowing is something that develops over time with your consistency. It’s great if she knows it, but you don’t want that to be a crutch for your immediate and most passionate expression.

The first thing to cultivate is your appreciation. Appreciation is a focus, but appreciation fades without attention. Every day, try to notice what you love about her. Is it how she inspires or supports you? Is it her smile? What about her can you celebrate? And then ask yourself how you want to give form to these thoughts or feelings. Is it with gifts? Is it with acts of loving kindness? Is it a card or a plane ticket, a poem, or a bouquet of flowers? What are you most moved to do? What ways are most satisfying for you to celebrate her?

Saturday, September 5, 2015

Pheromone Release and Mating Success

Close-in mating activity, as observed by Richerson et al.,“ was described as follows: The male approaches the female usually from above, rarely from below. Final short- range orientation (25 to 30 cm) is a straight line run at the female. After initial contact with the female‘: head, thorax. or win: (rarely with the abdomen). Learn about pheromones at

D. Factors Affecting Pheromone Release and Mating Success

Richerson and Cameron“ found that the female would not reach maximum attractiveness until the second or third day of adult life, a conclusion supported by field observations of Boness.“ On the other hand, Richerson et al.“ found little difference in the mating potential of 1- to 3-day-old females, but reported that mating success decreased greatly from the 4th day onward. Collins and Potts‘ reported that virgin females remained attractive to males until death (up to 17 days in one instance).

The amount of pheromone released by an individual female gypsy moth is a subject of current research interest. It is also important in planning a mass pheromone trapping program because one must compare the emission rate of pheromone from the trap with that of the competing female. Richerson and Cameron” found that a feral adult gypsy moth emits pheromone at a rate of 13 ng/min for a 30-min “burst” once in its lifetime. The rate is much lower at all other times. Such behavior has important implications for a mass-trapping program because at times other than the “burst”, the traps would presumably be more attractive than the females. Confirmation is needed according to

Doane noted that some feral females call but do not attract males. These tended to be smaller than average and may have developed from diseased larvae. Even though they called actively, they seemed to be producing little or no pheromone. Cameron questioned the use of laboratory-reared females as evaluation tools because they were “somehow different” from field insects.

Subsequently, Richerson and Cameron“ re- ported gross differences in pheromone production and periodicity between laboratory- reared and field-collected females. As pointed out by Doane above,“ field-collected insects can also be defective following exposure to disease, food stress, etc. Zecevic" found that females reared under “crowded” conditions produced “weak” females with reproductivity inferior to that of “strong” females reared singly, thereby demonstrating that rearing conditions can influence reproduction potential.

Diet and rearing procedures for gypsy moths have been improved substantially since the work of Cameron and Richerson. Moreover, Holbrook and Beroza“ found that pheromone extracted from laboratory-reared moths was more active than that extracted from field-collected gypsy moths (based on trap captures using extracts of equivalent numbers of female tips).

Similarly, Coffelt et al., working with the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), found no difference in male response to extracts from laboratory-reared or feral females. Sower et al.’° stated that “physiological differences between inbred laboratory strains and the wild strains of insects can be expected.”

However, when they compared female sex pheromone content and male responsiveness of a wild vs. a laboratory-reared strain of the almond moth, Cadra cautella (Walker), they found the strains identical for the characteristics tested.